A (14) | B (3) | C (29) | D (9) | E (10) | F (2) | G (3) | H (8) | I (11) | K (1) | L (3) | M (7) | N (2) | P (12) | Q (4) | R (8) | S (17) | T (1) | U (4) | V (2) | W (2) | ا (1)


The social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and men and girls and boys. It differs from sex which is defined most often at birth based on biological anatomy. Non-binary gender identity refers to any gender identity or expression which does not fit the male/female or boy/girl binary.

WHO defines gender to be “the socially constructed characteristics of women and men – such as norms, roles and relationships of and between groups of women and men. It varies from society to society and can be changed. The concept of gender includes five important elements: relational, hierarchical, historical, contextual and institutional. While most people are born either male or female, they are taught appropriate norms and behaviours – including how they should interact with others of the same or opposite sex within households, communities and work places. When individuals or groups do not “fit” established gender norms they often face stigma, discriminatory practices or social exclusion – all of which adversely affect health.”

Gender-based violence (GBV)

An umbrella term for any harmful act that is perpetrated against a person’s will and that is based on socially ascribed (i.e. gender) differences between males and females. It includes acts that inflict physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion, and other deprivations of liberty. These acts can occur in public or in private. Some harmful practices, such as child marriage and FGM/C, are also forms of GBV. GBV has significant and long-lasting impacts on the health and psychological, social and economic well-being of women and girls and their families and communities. See also Sexual Violence and Sexual and Gender Based Violence.

Gender transformative approach

Interventions that are designed to address the root causes of gender-based discrimination and hence question gendered power relations.