Traditional and non-traditional practices which inflict pain, cause physical or psychological harm and ‘disfigurement’ of children. In many societies, these practices are considered a social norm and defended by perpetrators and community members on the basis of tradition, religion, or superstition. Harmful practices perpetrated primarily against girls, like female genital mutilation and child marriage, are also forms of gender-based violence.
Potentially damaging physical events, natural phenomenon or human activity that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption or environmental damage. Some definitions suggest hazards are dangers that can be foreseen but not avoided.
Work which, by its nature or by the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety and morals of children, and which must be prohibited for children under the age of 18 years (even when this is above the general minimum working age). The ILO’s Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation, 1999 (No. 190), the non-binding guidelines that accompany Convention No. 182, give some indication as to what work should be prohibited. It urges member States to give consideration to:
Work that exposes children to physical, emotional or sexual abuse;
Work underground, under water, at dangerous heights or in confined spaces;
Work with dangerous machinery, equipment and tools, or which involves the manual handling or
transport of heavy loads;
Work in an unhealthy environment, which may, for example, expose children to hazardous
substances, agents or processes; or to temperatures, noise levels, or vibrations damaging to their
Work under particularly difficult conditions, such as work for long hours or during the night, or work
that does not allow for the possibility of returning home each day.
Human rights / child rights
Rights that every human being is entitled to enjoy simply by virtue of being human. They identify the minimum conditions for living with dignity that apply to all of us. They are universal and inalienable: they cannot be taken away. As human beings, children are human rights holders. Additionally, they have a specific set of human rights – often referred to as child rights – pertaining to persons under the age of 18 and enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 1989.
The objectives of humanitarian action are to save lives, alleviate suffering and maintain human dignity during and in the aftermath of man-made crises and natural disasters, as well as to prevent and strengthen preparedness for the occurrence of such situations. Humanitarian action has two inextricably linked dimensions: protecting people and providing assistance. Humanitarian action is rooted in humanitarian principles - humanity, impartiality, neutrality, and independence. See Humanitarian response.
Wide range of authorities, communities, organizations, agencies and inter-agency networks that all combine to enable international humanitarian assistance to be channelled to the places and people in need of it. They include UN agencies, the International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement, non- governmental organizations (NGOs), local government institutions and donor agencies. The actions of these organizations are guided by key humanitarian principles: humanity, impartiality, independence and neutrality.
Serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts that exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources and therefore requires urgent action. It can refer to slow- and rapid-onset situations, rural and urban environments and complex political emergencies in all countries.
One dimension of humanitarian action. It focuses on the provision of services and public assistance during or immediately after a specific emergency in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety, maintain human dignity and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected. It should be governed by the key humanitarian principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence. It can be used interchangeably with Humanitarian assistance and Intervention. Response all includes mitigation efforts. See also Mitigation.