A (14) | B (3) | C (29) | D (9) | E (10) | F (2) | G (3) | H (8) | I (11) | K (1) | L (3) | M (7) | N (2) | P (12) | Q (4) | R (8) | S (17) | T (1) | U (4) | V (2) | W (2) | ا (1)

Capacity strengthening

The strengthening of knowledge, ability, skills and resources to help individuals, communities or organizations to achieve agreed goals.


An individual, community, or institution (including the State) with clear responsibility (by custom or by law) for the well-being of the child. It most often refers to a person with whom the child lives and who provides daily care to the child.

Caregiving environment

The direct physical and human environment children live in, and is unique for every child.

Case management

An approach to address the needs of an individual child and their family in an appropriate, systematic and timely manner, through direct support and/or referrals.


The key worker in a case who maintains responsibility for the child’s care from case identification to case closure, in a case management approach. Other social service practitioners (such as social workers) or even other professionals (such as health workers) may take on a caseworker role as well.

Cash and voucher assistance (CVA)

All programmes where cash transfers or vouchers for goods or services are directly provided to recipients.

Centrality of Protection

The recognition that the protection of all persons affected and at risk must inform humanitarian decision-making and response, including engagement with States and non-State parties to conflict. Protection is recognised as the purpose and intended outcome of humanitarian action and must be central to preparedness efforts, as part of immediate and life-saving activities, and throughout the duration of humanitarian response and beyond.


Persons below the age of 18 years.


Working methods that do not discriminate against children and that take into account their age, evolving capacities, diversity and capabilities. These methods promote children’s confidence and ability to learn, speak out, share and express their views. Sufficient time and appropriate information and materials are provided and communicated effectively to children. Staff and adults are approachable, respectful and responsive.

Child friendly spaces (CFS)

Safe spaces where communities (and humanitarian actors) create nurturing environments in which children can access free and structured play, recreation, leisure and learning activities. See Standard 15: Group activities for child well-being.

Child-headed household

A household in which a child or children (typically an older sibling) assumes the primary, day-to-day responsibility for running the household, and providing and caring for those within it.

Child in conflict with the law

Any child who comes into contact with law enforcement authorities because he or she is alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the criminal law. Children may be arrested for activities that are officially criminalized in legislation but which the international human rights community calls to be decriminalized as a matter of urgency (e.g. status offences).

Child in contact with the justice system

Any child who comes into contact with the juvenile justice system or the criminal justice system as a victim/survivor, witness or in conflict with the law, and/or any child who comes into contact with the civil and/or administrative justice systems. This term is broader than ‘child in conflict with the law’.

Child labour

Work carried out to the detriment and endangerment of a child, in violation of international law and national legislation. It either deprives children of schooling or requires them to assume the dual burden of schooling and work. See Standard 12: Child labour and Worst Forms of Child Labour.

Child participation

The manifestation of the right of every child to express his or her view, to have that view given all due consideration, to influence decision-making and to achieve change. It is the informed and willing involvement of all children, including the most marginalised and those of different ages, genders and disabilities, in any matter concerning them.See Principle 3.

Child protection in humanitarian action (CPHA)

The prevention of and response to abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence against children in humanitarian action.

Child safeguarding

The responsibility that organisations have to make sure their staff, operations, and programmes do no harm to children. It includes policy, procedures and practices to prevent children from being harmed by humanitarian organisations as well as steps to respond and investigate when harm occurs.

Child well-being

Child well-being is a dynamic, subjective and objective state of physical, cognitive, emotional, spiritual and social health in which children:

  • Are safe from abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence;

  • Have their basic needs, including survival and development, met;

  • Are connected to and cared for by primary caregivers;

  • Have the opportunity for supportive relationships with relatives, peers, teachers, community

    members and society at large; and

  • Have the opportunities and elements required to exercise their agency based on their evolving


Child marriage

Child marriage is a formal or informal union where one or both parties are under the age of 18. All child marriage is considered forced, as children are not able to give full consent to marriage.

Civil society

Citizens who are linked by common interests and collective activity but excluding for-profit, private sector organisations. Civil society can be informal, or organised into NGOs or other associations.

Cluster approach

The Cluster Approach was part of the 2005 Humanitarian Reform Agenda to enhance predictability, accountability and partnership. Clusters are groups of humanitarian organizations, both UN and non- UN, in each of the main sectors of humanitarian action (e.g. protection, health and logistics). They are designated by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) and have clear responsibilities for coordination.

Code of conduct

A clear and concise guide of what is and is not acceptable behaviour or practice when employed or engaged by the organisation.

Cognitive processes

Mental processes such as thought, imagination, perception, memory, decision-making, reasoning and problem-solving.

Community capacities

Initiatives, structures, processes and networks led and organized by individuals and members of the community (including children themselves) that promote children’s rights, safety, development, well- being and participation.

Community-led child protection

Approaches that are led by a collective, community-driven process rather than by an NGO, UN agency or other outside actor.

Community-level approaches

Approaches that seek to ensure that community members are able to protect children and ensure their right to healthy development.


The obligation that information about an individual will not be disclosed or made available to unauthorised persons without prior permission. There may be limits on confidentiality for children in accordance with their best interests as well as mandatory reporting obligations.


The process of interpreting or adapting the standards to context; the process of debating, determining and agreeing upon the meaning of global guidance in a given local situation; “translating” the meaning and guidance of the Standards for the context of a country (or region) so as to make the content of the Standards appropriate and meaningful to the given circumstances.

Coping mechanisms

Coping is the process of adapting to a new life situation, managing difficult circumstances or making an effort to solve or minimise stress or conflict. Some coping mechanisms are sustainable and helpful, while others may be negative, with potentially long-term harmful consequences.