Necessary and appropriate modification and adjustments where needed to ensure children with disabilities the enjoyment of equal rights as other children. Modifications are made in consultation with the child and family. Examples include reorganizing school or work activities to facilitate access (remote work, home-based education), enabling access to support personnel (e.g. sign language interpretation in a legal process) always within the boundaries of undue or disproportionate burden. Even when accessibility is considered in service design, budget should be planned for the provision of reasonable accommodation for punctual cases. Denial of reasonable accommodation constitutes discrimination.
The process of directing a child or family to another service provider because the assistance required is beyond the expertise or scope of work of the current service provider. Community members, professionals in contact with children (teachers, police, etc.) and other humanitarian actors can direct a child or their family to social services or child protection workers in cases of suspected or actual abuse, neglect, exploitation or violence against children. Caseworkers in a case management system also make referral to request formally services from another agency (e.g. cash and voucher assistance, health care, etc.) through an established procedure and/or form.
All persons who are outside their country of origin for reasons of a well-founded fear of persecution on one of the grounds listed in the 1951 Convention or because a conflict, generalised violence or other circumstances that have seriously disturbed public order and who, as a result, require international protection.
Children’s ability to overcome the damaging effects of adversities, their adaptive capacity to find ways to realize their rights, good health, development, and well-being. More generally in humanitarian context, resilience refers to the ability of an individual, community, society or country to anticipate, withstand and recover from adversity - be it a disaster or crisis.
A way of responding to criminal behaviour which emphasises repairing the harm caused by the crime and ‘restoring’ harmony as much as possible between offender, victim/survivor and society. It mainly involves some form of mediation and conflict resolution and often results in apologies, reparation, compensation and community service.
Any form of physical or psychological abuse, harassment or assault perpetrated by a different offender to the initial victimisation. Re-victimization can also result from inadequate or non- professional handling of victims by protection or security agencies and institutions. It refers to a pattern wherein the victim of abuse and/or crime has a statistically higher tendency to be victimised again, either shortly thereafter or much later in adulthood in the case of abuse as a child. Research has shown that this pattern is particularly notable in cases of sexual victimisation.
In humanitarian action, risk is the likelihood of harm occurring from a hazard and the potential losses to lives, livelihoods, assets and services. It is the probability of external and internal threats occurring in combination with the existence of individual vulnerabilities. Risk is mitigated by protection against physical hazards, reduction of structural and non-structural risks, resources and skills for disaster- preparedness, and resilience and coping skills.
For child protection, risk refers to the likelihood that violations of and threats to children’s rights will manifest and cause harm to children. Defining risk takes into account the type of violations and threats, as well as children’s vulnerability and resilience. See Hazard.
A methodology used to review a hazard, how it may cause harm, and determine the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm. In child protection, it is used to determine the nature and extent of risk by taking into account potential hazards and existing conditions of vulnerability that together could harm children and families. Child protection risk assessments should also take account the safety and protection of the child, family and community and their capacity to resist or recover.